Riley et al. (2016) sought to explore the perceptions of parents and utilization of Time-Out (TO) contrary to empirical indic

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Article Summary #2

Riley et al. (2016) sought to explore the perceptions of parents and utilization of Time-Out (TO) contrary to empirical indications, as well as assess the association between perceived effectiveness and reported implementation procedures. According to Riley et al. (2016), ineffective discipline can forecast several undesirable results for a family, such as parental distress, child abuse, and interpersonal violence in the child’s adult life. Thus, most healthcare organizations recommend effective and safe discipline practices for young children’s parents. Time-out (TO) is among the most commonly used type of child discipline in terms of recommendations by PCPs and usage by young children’s parents. It is among the most supported disruptive behavior therapies and minimizes child behaviors such as noncompliance and aggression.

Riley et al. (2016) study sought to ascertain claims by some scholars that TO is not effective. To achieve the study goal, the researchers surveyed a sample of 401 school-age and preschool children’s parents whose children were aged between 15 months to 10 years. Parents were surveyed concerning their perception, awareness, and utilization of TO. Specifically, the parents were examined about the components of TO that have been empirically assessed or elements that relate directly to TO’s underlying behavioral principles. Correlational and descriptive analyses and group comparisons were utilized to characterize responses and assess the association between TO perceived effectiveness and administration variation.

The methods used in this study were approved by the institution’s human subjects reviewing committee. The sample included the use of recruitment methods that were intended for a general sample number of primary care. The recruitment process was done through the use of parent pads which were self-administered surveys in either Spanish or English. Based on the researchers’ review of the literature, several procedures were identified, which include the provision of several warnings, utilization of the child’s bedroom for TO, and reasons for giving TO.

Findings revealed that the majority of parents (76.8%) revealed that they use TO to respond to misbehavior, although the majority of them (84.9%) stated that they implement TO in a way that counters empirical evidence. Based on the study findings, parents who recognized TO as effective differed significantly from those that failed to consider in regards to key implementation components such as the utilization of a single warning. Furthermore, several parents argued that implementation practices for TO were associated with perceived effectiveness and difficult child behavior. For instance, demanding that a child remains calm before ending TO has a positive relationship with perceived effectiveness.

Riley et al. (2016) argue that visual stimuli are not always contraindicated because of the case of no exclusionary Timeout. However, they also say that that practice has mostly been studied in classroom or daycare setups, and the findings indicate that Time outtakes lesser trials to bring about the anticipated effect. The authors also discuss behavior parenting practices which they state that parents endorse common responses to misbehavior like removing privilege and also positive discipline rewarding. During questioning, some parents agreed to use time out while others denied it and gave their reasons. The implementation, demographic, and data analysis were influential in obtaining accurate information that helped generate reliable results.

Riley et al. (2016) claimed that although TO is a widely recognized practice, there are doubts about how TO is implemented. As such, they concluded that more improved ways of educating parents on evidence-based discipline are required.

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